Home > Critical Thinking, Current Affairs, Dystopia, Musings, Philosophy sans Sophistry, Reason, Secular Religions, Skepticism > Causes for Mediocre Real-Life Efficacy of Current COVID-19 Vaccines

Causes for Mediocre Real-Life Efficacy of Current COVID-19 Vaccines

Most readers must have, by now, heard or come across multiple instances of “breakthrough” symptomatic COVID-19 infections in “double-vaccinated” individuals- including many young and otherwise healthy ones. The rapidly increasing number of such infections, which are still being aggressively ignored by CDC and the establishment, make mockery of the initial claims of 94-95% efficacy for mRNA vaccines against COVID-19. In Israel, one of earliest and most vaccinated countries, breakthrough COVID-19 infections now account for over 60% of those requiring hospitalization. In response, the dumbfucks are mandating a third dose of the same vaccine- most likely because third time is the charm.

So what happened? How did vaccines will alleged efficacy of 94-95% at preventing even mild symptomatic COVID-19 underperform so badly in real life? Also, why don’t other currently available vaccines (except for Influenza A) fail at high rates? While every talking head on TV wants to blame “delta” or some other exotic sounding strain, the real reasons for the mediocre real-life efficacy of vaccines was very predictable, for a number of well-known and obvious reasons. As you will soon see, many of them have been well understood for decades and it says a lot about the current crop of “experts” that they either ignored them or were ignorant.

1] The fact that the dominant COVID-19 strain today comes from the “delta” lineage is, by far, the least important reason for why current vaccines have such mediocre efficacy- but let us talk about it anyway. The biggest factor behind why “delta” strains matter is that majority of significant mutations have occurred in spike protein of COVID-19, which is the only protein used in (or generated by) almost all currently approved vaccines. The antibody response to any virus is polyclonal (many different antibody lineages of varying specificity) and directed against all foreign proteins (antigens) expressed by that virus. Using a whole virus, in attenuated or inactivated form exposes the immune system to all viral antigens, including those much less able to undergo significant mutations.

Here is a fun fact, even non-neutralizing antibodies directed towards less “important ” viral antigens have an important role to play in the immune response. This is, for example, why only three strains of poliovirus can cover all possible mutations for that virus- or why a single strain of measles or yellow fever virus can cover almost any mutation in those viruses. This is why the most effective human and animal vaccines usually contain the whole virus in their inactivated and attenuated form. And yes, Hepatis B vaccine works well with a single antigen because HBsAg is strongly immunogenic and elicits a very good T-cell response in addition to B-cell mediated antibody production.

2] And this brings to the question of whether T-cell mediated immunity in combination with B-cell mediated immunity is more important for lasting immunity against viruses and other intracellular pathogens than just B-cell mediated immunity. Well.. as I said in the previous paragraph, there is more than one reason we prefer to make vaccines using the whole virus (inactivated or attenuated)- and this is the second one. As it turns out, non-surface viral proteins which are not involved in viral infectivity nonetheless also provide targets for the T-cells, including those involved in formation of immune memories. So even a virus with a partial “escape” mutation in its surface proteins/s will still trigger the T- cell mediated part of immune system and kickstart the immune response.

While it is more expensive and slower to measure than antibody levels, we know that T-cell mediated responses have the best correlation with duration of immunity conferred by an infection or vaccine. This finding holds for viruses ranging from smallpox (now extinct) to measles, yellow fever, rubella, chickenpox etc. As it turns out.. mRNA vaccines elicit a rather poor T-cell mediated response, even though they do a pretty good job making the body produce antibodies via a B-cell response. Even under ideal conditions, mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 as they exist right now (spike protein only) are unlikely to create long-lasting immunity. Recovery from natural infection does a much better job of stimulating a robust T-cell response in addition to a B-cell mediated one.

3] Then there is the issue of what types of antibodies are produced. The well known antibody classes (IgG and IgM), are also the only ones produced in response to current vaccines, remain within the bloodstream and tissues. They cannot, therefore, neutralize viruses until they enter the bloodstream or tissues. COVID-19, along with many other respiratory viruses, is far more likely to cause a local infection in the upper respiratory tract where it is out of reach (at least initially) of those two antibody classes. There is another class (IgA, especially the secreted subclass) which can be secreted into mucus and other bodily fluids to provide such protection- however the body makes such antibodies only after natural infection by the pathogen or an attenuated vaccine such as the oral polio vaccine.

In other words, injected mRNA vaccines or even current adenovirus-based ones were never going to be able to prevent localized infection by COVID-19 in the upper respiratory tract. Therefore those vaccinated with current vaccines will still get infected, spread the virus and likely get mild symptoms. This was always the case and anybody pretending otherwise is a lying shill or just plain dumb. If we had an inhaled vaccine based on an attenuated strain of COVID-19 or another attenuated live virus expressing the spike protein.. well, things would be quite different then. My point is that “experts” and establishment pretending that these vaccines could prevent transmission and mild symptoms was always a very stupid idea.

It is important to point out that vaccines of any type have lower rates of efficacy in the very old AND sick- who are, coincidentally, the most likely to die from COVID-19. As many of you also know, the majority of deaths from COVID-19 occurred in people who were above 80 AND in nursing homes or assisted living situations. In summary, the current crop of COVID-19 vaccines were created based on lame considerations- such as how flashy the underlying technology sounded rather than how effective it was likely to be in real life. It does not help that the clinical trials used to make the 95% efficacy claim were underpowered and fixed. To make matters worse, they were widely promoted to do things which they weren’t capable of doing. And you wonder why so many are skeptical of them.

What do you think? Comments?

  1. Mr Ödessä
    August 25, 2021 at 12:39 pm

    Your COONVID-skeptic posts will get your entire blog deleted (Seriously).

    Are you making backups of your blog?

    Since I started writing it, a decade ago.

    • Arjun
      August 25, 2021 at 5:51 pm

      this isn’t the real Mr. Odessa (home is where the hate is) BTW.

      And whomever this is, nice cartoon but the coppers (unlike real life coppers) should be wearing mouth diapers.

      Apparently from Georgia (country not state). Could be VPN.

      • Arjun
        August 25, 2021 at 10:44 pm

        “Apparently from Georgia (country not state).”

        Surprised your boi MikeCaCa didn’t say anything you wussian agent you…

        “Could be VPN.”

        That Plaque Crapper guy was from some Nordick cuntry, eh?

        Obviously, this goy is smarter than Ryu and all the Eradifags.

      • matt forney
        August 29, 2021 at 9:03 pm

        It’s me, Ferdinand Bardamu!


      • Arjun
        August 29, 2021 at 11:32 pm

    • R Pay
      August 29, 2021 at 5:56 pm

      I like dis won better!

    • Arjun
      August 30, 2021 at 8:44 pm

      I doubt you are the real Matt Ferny, either way let’s have a laugh at “his” expense…

  2. MikeCA
    August 25, 2021 at 5:56 pm

    So you are continuing your anti-vaccine disinformation crusade.

    FYI- My undergrad was in Microbiology and after my Graduate degrees (MSc and PhD) I used to work for a few years in a project aimed at developing drugs for treating weaponizable microbes- at a state university paid by more than one government grant to my PI from certain agencies and institutes funded by the american government and another G7 nation. So, I know a bit more about this area than you! Also, they don’t pay as well as pharma which does not help with talent retention.

    Vaccine efficiencies at preventing infection are at best vague indicators. The initial trials were done at a time when most of the country was under lock downs and mask requirements. They found 90-95% efficiency at preventing infections under those conditions. Under those conditions most people had no exposures and some people had one or a few. If the vaccine is 95% effective at preventing an infection after a single exposure while wearing a mask, what is going to happen when someone goes out and has 10 exposures in a week without a mask? If a vaccine is 95% effective in preventing infections after a single exposure, how effective is it after 10 exposures? If it is 95% effective at each exposure, after 10 exposures the efficiency will appear to be around 60%. So are vaccine efficiencies really declining or are peoples behavior changing and they are getting more exposures?

    Read what I have written above again. Did you know that measles is far more infectious than COVID-19 + more likely to mutate than COVID-19. Also it has more lethality in non-immune adults. Yet we have a very effective and safe vaccine for that disease. Wonder why? Wonder how come we have vaccines with similar great efficacy for Rubella and Mumps. I chose the MMR vaccine as an example since it shows what can be done once you have a very good and safe vaccine. Do you see people masking their kids to prevent those diseases- even in countries where they have yet to be eradicated? Why not?

    It is well known that anti-bodies in the blood usually decay away after 6 months unless there is another exposure to the virus or another booster vaccination. You should still have B-cells that will start making anti-bodies again if they detect the virus, but this will take a few days and by then you may well have a mild infection. The T-cell response should also still be active, but T-cells kill the infected cells after the virus has infected them. The T-cells are important for preventing a minor infection becoming a serious infection.

    Stick to programming and stop making a fool out of yourself. T-cell mediated immunity has long been understood to be the most important component of immunity against virus and intracellular pathogens. Antibodies produced by B-cells have a supporting role in immunity against viral infections. The current bunch of vaccines (especially mRNA-based) are great at stimulating antibody production but shitty at producing T-cell mediated immunity.

    Apparently the push for booster shots is based on the believe that anti-bodies in the blood reduce the spread of the virus. There are studies that show vaccinated people have detectable virus for a significantly shorter time than unvaccinated people.

    It is possible to cook up “studies” which show anything you want- but that doesn’t mean they are true. The real test for any drug is always after Phase III.

    The adenovirus and mRNA vaccines were the first developed because they could be developed and go through trials quickly. Attenuated live virus vaccines are difficult to develop and get approved. They usually are too risky to be used by people with weak immune systems. Attenuated live vaccines are used for childhood vaccinations of children for things like chickenpox, smallpox and measles.

    What about inactivated virus vaccines like the injected polio vaccine? There are at least two vaccines (one in India) which use inactivated COVID-19 with a Th1-specific adjuvant which produces very decent immunity + far fewer serious adverse reactions (which is typical for inactivated virus vaccines).

    As it turns out there is a live attenuated nasal vaccine candidate for COVID-19 called COVI-VAC. It is currently suppose to be in a small (300 person) phase 1/2 trial. It would take a much larger trial to determine if it is more effective than current vaccines. I wonder if AD has some connection to Codagenix which is making COVI-VAC or perhaps owns stock in them.

    Not making money out this bullshit, yet.

    There are several Inactivated virus vaccines (dead virus), like the Chinese Sinovac, but there is no evidence they are anymore effective in preventing infection than the adenovirus or mRNA vaccines.

    What were you expecting? That every inactivated virus vaccine works? Read a bit about the history of inactivated polio vaccines. It took multiple tries by many researchers before we ended up with the Salk vaccine- and even then the most widely used version of it contains more than one strain.

    This post is just classic misinformation. It is not that any of the bits of information is wrong, it is that they are presented out of context and strung together to attempt to imply their is something wrong with the current vaccines. The current vaccines are not perfect, but they are the best tools we have right now. They reduce the chances of being infected but do not completely eliminated it. They do significantly reduce the chances of being hospitalized or die from an infection.

    If you called any vaccine which provided such fragmentary and temporary protection for any other disease as the current crop of COVID-19 vaccines, it would be considered a sad failure. Read a bit about how incredibly effective most approved human vaccines (except for Influenza A) are in real life. We clearly require much more effective vaccines for COVID-19.

    It seems clear to me at this point that we will not be able to eliminate Covid-19, but we should be able to turn it into something like the flue, which everyone gets but it is only serious for people with weak immune systems. This will happen whether any more people get vaccinated or not. The delta variant is contagious enough that everyone who is not vaccinated will catch it in the next year or so. If they don’t die, they will have natural immunity then. The problem with this is that it strains hospitals and there are unnecessary deaths that could have been prevented by the current vaccines.

    Fair enough.. at least you are not a zero-COVID idiot, but let us be realistic about something- we require much better (much higher efficacy, lower adverse effects) vaccines for COVID-19 than anything we have today. At best, currently available vaccines seem to reduce the risk of ICU usage by about 70-80% (which is not bad) but to call this as a great success is delusional. MMR reduces the risk of death and complications from Measles by 1,000 fold.. ya by that much! Smallpox vaccine (in 1960s-1970s) reduced risk of severe illness by well over 1,000 fold- including against especially virulent strains. Polio vaccines reduces the risk of developing paralytic poliomyelitis by over 10,000 fold.

    • OneDeplorableDT
      August 26, 2021 at 7:52 pm

      Imagine typing “vaccine efficiency” instead of “vaccine efficacy.” Then proving through your statements that it wasn’t a simple misspelling, rather, you simply don’t have a clue what scientists mean by “vaccine efficacy.” Then proceeding, in multiple posts, to lecture a PhD about how wonderful and “efficient” the failing Covid-19 mRNA vaccines really are.

      MikeCA, you are not a SmartBoy(TM) and you need to stop acting as if you were a SmartBoy(TM). Close your mouth, open your eyes, accept that you are ignorant on this topic, stop coping for team covid vaccine, and start learning something from the blog host who is trying to teach you.

      • Chief Jex
        August 29, 2021 at 7:58 pm

        Mic drop… another shill for big Pharma OneDeplorable

    • arjun
      September 7, 2021 at 1:56 pm

      My undergrad was in Microbiology and after my Graduate degrees (MSc and PhD) I used to work for a few years in a project aimed at developing drugs for treating weaponizable microbes- at a state university paid by more than one government grant to my PI from certain agencies and institutes funded by the american government and another G7 nation.

      • arjun
        September 7, 2021 at 2:03 pm

      • Arjun
        September 7, 2021 at 2:32 pm

        You can tell this is imposterjun because I know how to link pictures without that broken link ? mark thingy. Must be a white nationalist that I triggered. Oh, well.

  3. MikeCA
    August 25, 2021 at 9:33 pm

    “Did you know that measles is far more infectious than COVID-19 + more likely to mutate than COVID-19. Also it has more lethality in non-immune adults. Yet we have a very effective and safe vaccine for that disease.”

    “MMR reduces the risk of death and complications from Measles by a 1,000 fold (or 100,000%).. ya by that much! Smallpox vaccine (in 1960s-1970s) reduced risk of severe illness by well over a 1,000 fold- including against especially virulent strains. Polio vaccines reduces the risk of developing paralytic poliomyelitis by over 10,000 fold.”

    Did we have that vaccine one year after measles was discovered?

    Does this answer your question about efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines, especially those based on mRNA technology?

    link 1 – Ultra-Vaxxed Israel’s Crisis Is a Dire Warning to America from DailyBeast

    link 2 – Israel’s Grim COVID Data Suggests Vaccines Alone Won’t Stop Pandemic from NewsWeek

    link 3 – Israel, Once the Model for Beating Covid, Faces New Surge of Infections from NYT

    link 4 – Tweet comparing rates of new cases per million in Sweden vs Israel


    link 5 – Tweet showing recent increase in rates of hospitalization and death due to COVID-19 in Israel

    Vaccines do not kill viruses. Vaccines train your immune system to kill the virus.

    There are two questions here. Is the vaccine doing an optimum job of training the immune system? Is the immune system capable completely fighting off an infection?

    The current vaccines are almost certainly not doing the optimum job of training the immune system, but they are certainly improving the situation. I don’t think we have very good studies on re-infection by people that already had COVID-19. It does happen, but it seems to be rare. It does seem that having COVID-19 infection does not give you 100% protection from re-infection, so even an optimum vaccine is not going to be 100% effective.

    There are studies that show that corona viruses that cause colds give some immunity from the same virus, but it is only partially effective and you can be re-infected by the same virus after a year or two. We just don’t know right now how well the immune system can fight off COVID-19, even with a perfect vaccine.

    Your whole argument is that the current vaccines are not the perfect vaccine, so you should wait for the perfect vaccine. If you wait now, it is highly likely you will catch COVID-19 in the next year. If you get the vaccine now, you will be less likely to catch it in the next year and if you do it will be milder, you will be much less like to be hospitalized, end up in an ICU or die. You can always get the perfect vaccine when it is developed.

    “Not making money out this bullshit, yet.”

    So you do have a finical interest in Codagenix.

  4. MikeCA
    August 25, 2021 at 10:53 pm

    “Does this answer your question about efficacy of current COVID-19, especially those based on mRNA technology?”

    I have seen all these scare articles about the situation in Israel, but most of these graphs are talking about raw counts. Santa Clara County, California where I live has a dashboard that shows the COVID case rates for vaccinated and unvaccinated. Currently for vaccinated people the rate is 9.5 per 100,000 fully vaccinated residents. For unvaccinated it is 37.8 per 100,000 unvaccinated residents. If you were to look at the raw counts, I’m sure you would find that there are more cases in vaccinated than in unvaccinated, because Santa Clara County is currently 81% fully vaccinated for 12+ residents. (This is largely because Asians appear to be 100% vaccinated.) But it is still clear that unvaccinated people are more likely to be infected than vaccinate people. The most disturbing data in this dash board is that the case rate for vaccinated people has leveled off since mask requirements were re-introduced regardless of vaccination status, but the case rate has continued to shoot up among the unvaccinated.

    It would be nice to have this data for hospitalizations too, but currently it is not available.

    Where I live, the most recent data suggests that vaccinations reduce risk of hospitalization by about 3-fold (right now). However more worryingly, the risk of death after hospitalization is closer to 2.5 fold, since catastrophic failures occur more frequently in the above-70 group. This is a far cry from the 95% (20-fold) efficacy number Pfizer and Moderna were touting after Phase III trials late last year.

    Also, the efficacy of both mRNA vaccines in preventing mild respiratory symptoms is only around 2-fold, which as you might remember was supposed to be at least 10-15 fold.

    • MikeCA
      August 28, 2021 at 11:52 am

      Someone pointed out that many of these studies of the rate of infection or hospitalization among vaccinated vs unvaccinated are distorted in location with high vaccination rates like Israel or Santa Clara County. We need to compare the rates for people with some immunity (either vaccination or prior infection) to the rate of infection for people with no immunity.

      “SARS-CoV-2-naïve vaccinees had a 13.06-fold (95% CI, 8.08 to 21.11) increased risk for breakthrough infection with the Delta variant compared to those previously infected, when the first event (infection or vaccination) occurred during January and February of 2021.”

      and from inside the paper

      “After adjusting for comorbidities, we found a 27.02-fold risk (95% CI, 12.7 to 57.5) for symptomatic breakthrough infection as opposed to symptomatic reinfection (P<0.001)"


      Santa Clara County estimates that there are 320,000 unvaccinated and 1,393,000 vaccinated residents (12+), but there have been 132,000 people test positive for Covid and the true number of cases is probably twice that or more. Clearly a lot of those people have been vaccinated, but how many of the unvaccinated already had Covid so they have natural immunity? We don’t know, but to get the true Covid rate of infection for people with no immunity we need to subtract the people who have immunity from prior infection. This effect distorts the rates more in areas with high vaccination rates because people who recovered from Covid are probably less likely to get vaccinated.

      • doldrom
        August 29, 2021 at 9:00 am

        What also distorts rates are counting people with 50% prior chance of death in the current year, especially if they are given the same weight as deaths among infants or youth.

        Just what proportion of those dead people would still be among us absent Covid?

      • MikeCA
        August 29, 2021 at 11:31 am

        “SARS-CoV-2-naïve vaccinees had a 13.06-fold (95% CI, 8.08 to 21.11) increased risk for breakthrough infection with the Delta variant compared to those previously infected, when the first event (infection or vaccination) occurred during January and February of 2021.”

        What this paper says in English is that natural immunity from Covid-19 infection provides stronger immunity that last longer than the vaccines. However, both appear to fade with time, and re-infection, though currently rare, is possible.

        Care to explain why natural infection with the older COVID-19 strain provides so much better protection against reinfection and hospitalization by newer strain than the supposedly 95% effective vaccines? Ya.. that is the difference between T- + B- cell mediated immunity and the inferior one mediated by B-cells only.

        What this means is probably most people will eventually catch COVID-19 like they do the flue, but if you have been fully vaccinated first you have much better chance of it being a mild infection that does not require hospitalization.

        This study’s results on hospitalizations is probably somewhat biased, because people with weak immune systems who catch COVID-19 are likely to die from it. Therefore they could not be part of this study. People with weak immune systems who are fully vaccinated are the people likely to end up in the hospital in this study.

        They actually matched age profile and co-morbidity profiles among both groups quite closely, so that is not an issue of significance. Also note that both natural and vaccine acquired immunity failures tend to occur almost exclusively in those over 60- but the gap between the breakthrough rates is pretty large.

      • doldrom
        August 30, 2021 at 6:45 am

        It isn’t so much a matter of weak & strong immune systems as people keep saying, but genetic differences which make some people resistant and others more susceptible. Exactly what those differences are is hard to say, but as with all things, every immune system is to some extent unique. Some people with weak immune health generally can be impervious to certain pathogens, while others in the prime of health can be felled by something most people can handle. Differentiation is an advantage for the species.

      • MikeCA
        August 30, 2021 at 9:24 am

        “They actually matched age profile and co-morbidity profiles among both groups quite closely, so that is not an issue of significance.”

        We really don’t understand why COVID is minor in one person and serious or life threatening in another. Age and co-morbidity are not the factors that cause COVID to be severe in a person. It is some weakness in the immune system that is correlated with age and the co-morbidity. We know that on average the immune system is weaker in older people. It is probably the weakening of the immune system that makes older people more likely to be hospitalized and die from COVID not their age. When you compare to a group of people 75+ the had previously survived COVID, that group will still exclude the ones with the weakest immune systems because they died. The vaccinated 75+ will still include some with very weak immune systems who are more likely to be hospitalized by a break through infection.

  5. doldrom
    August 26, 2021 at 12:47 pm

    You are 100% on the mark on this one.
    Your upper respiratory passages are the outside of your body, similar to skin, from the vantage or your immune system. It is hard to create vaccines injected into tissue or blood to affect this first line of defense.

  6. bonzo
    August 27, 2021 at 11:44 am


    Of course, relying on natural immunity means you have to survive the infection, which implies that if governments are going to be heavy-handed about people’s health, why not jail fat people and dent then food until they are at a healthy weight? I’m not quite serious about suggesting this (though a dark place in me would actually love to see Tess Holiday and company thrown into monkey cages and starved for several months) but I am serious that it makes no sense to be intrusive about vaccines but laissez-faire about maintaining strong natural immune system, including healthy weight, clean diet, exercise, moderate alcohol, etc.

  7. bonzo
    August 27, 2021 at 11:48 am

    Thankfully, least some of the media are focusing attention on what really matters:


  8. bonzo
    August 28, 2021 at 5:39 am

    Sad that people are worrying about vaccine efficacy/efficiency/effectiveness or whatever when there is so much more important news out there. For example, what an uplifting story about transition being like second puberty. Wow! One puberty was enough for me, but some people are eager to go through again, this time as another gender:


  9. Arjun
    August 30, 2021 at 9:57 am

    I doubt this is the real Matt Ferny as he is very triggered by memes!

  10. Walls closing in
    August 31, 2021 at 4:37 pm

    I haven’t posted here in a long time. Has the author of this blog received a vaccination? Genuinely curious.

    No, I have not gotten any one of them yet. It helps that my age puts me in the low-risk category. Have no problems with the idea of vaccines- indeed my background was in medical microbiology. I would be quite OK with one based on an inactivated virus or even a live attenuated strain of COVID-19.

    My issue is that currently available vaccines offer no worthwhile protection from mild- to moderate- symptomatic disease or from transmission. The mediocre protection (60-80%, depending on age) they offer is mostly limited to preventing symptoms severe enough to require ICU admissions and death.

    I am also not a big fan of vaccine mandates and “passports” because it is very obvious how such power, once established, will be abused by future governments.

    • Arjun
      August 31, 2021 at 6:23 pm

      This meme has already ben posted but I speculate Advocatus Crapedhisdiapercoli has gotten the shot…

      Perhaps I should just ban you.

      • Arjun
        August 31, 2021 at 8:25 pm

        “Perhaps I should just ban you.”

        Serious question, how come you don’t hold white nationalists to the same standard?

    • Walls closing in
      September 1, 2021 at 1:03 am

      Thanks man. I haven’t been here in awhile and I remembered that you were some kind of bio-medical professional. I usually don’t pay attention to drug stuff, but these times we’re in… This pandemic, or whatever it is, has been highly politicized. Clean accurate info that is counter to the narrative tends to get drowned out. Vaccines usually take years to roll out. These vaccines seemed to have been rushed, maybe carelessly. It’s turning out that they aren’t as effective as hoped. So be it. But the continuous push! The censoring of real science seems to have backfired on several levels. I think the noble lie, despite being well intended, is crumbling. It seems to me, the cures are worse than the disease. What you wrote above was delivered in a technical manner, rather than more totalitarian politics. Informative. I need this right now, a lot of people do. Appreciated. Cheers.

    • doldrom
      September 1, 2021 at 4:43 am

      Actually, risk stratification by co-morbidity is more significant than age, although most people collect co-morbidities with age, so highly correlated.

  11. Arjun
    September 4, 2021 at 12:23 pm

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